In the internet era, everyone can fall victim to a scam like a financial scam, so-called phishing, identity theft and many more. A scam is an act of obtaining a good, service or money by deception (false name, fraudulent manoeuvres). The intention to deceive the victim is essential. There are many cases of scams, one of which is internet financial scams. The victim can file a complaint, and the penalties are increased if the fraud is committed by a public official or an organized gang. Also, there could be additional penalties to the main penalties.

The types of financial frauds

A scam happens when a person is given property, money, or service by cheating on the victim. The perpetrator exploits the victim by covering up the truth. The victim gives his property or money voluntarily because he has been deceived about the perpetrator’s intentions.

The deception can relate in particular to the following points:

  • Name (use of a false identity)
  • False status (by pretending to be a legal or health professional or by using a false family situation as being widowed while the husband is still alive)
  • Abuse of the trust of certain professions, certain functions (mayor, union representative, association president, etc.)
  • False document (a false diploma or a false invoice, for example)

Other common cases of scams

The scam can take many forms. It can range from simple deception to real manipulations to defraud the victim.

It could be a simple scam, like:

  • Offering investment in false machine production
  • They are selling fake concert tickets.
  • Send material that does not match the order.
  • They sell counterfeit clothes as luxury brand products.
  • It can also be a real fraudulent manoeuvre, sometimes involving staging and the intervention of a third party such as:
  • Using the pretext of stealing your cell phone when it is lost to obtain compensation
  • Submit false payslips to obtain unemployment benefits
  • Organize so-called contests or lotteries


  • Fake online sale or fake auction

Romance scam that aims to get some money from the victim who has developed feelings towards the scammer

  • Fraudulent use of the bank card

Sending e-mail or SMS to obtain bank details to recover alleged funds or an inheritance (the scammer asks for funds to pay fees to help him collect the sums, and in the end, he keeps the money)

●    Difference between theft and breach of trust

A scam is different from theft. There is no voluntary discount during a flight.

The scam is different from the breach of trust. In a scam, the transaction is treated as fraudulent from the start. In a breach of trust, the perpetrator legally received the property or money and subsequently misappropriated it.

For example, a guardian who misappropriated the person’s money under guardianship commits a breach of trust because he has the legal right to manage this money for a specific use. He then misappropriated this right for his own benefit.

Conversely, if the scammer pretends to be someone’s guardian to withdraw money from the bank, he or she commits a scam because he does not have the right to manage that money.